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行業科普-食品級潤滑脂 發布時間:2020-06-12


食品級潤滑脂

食品級潤滑脂應用于各種食品級加工設備和其他工業設備中,包括滑動和滾動軸承、連接、連桿和滑道、集中潤滑系統和封閉齒輪箱等。食品級潤滑脂不僅要執行與其他潤滑脂相同的職能,而且對其還有如下要求:

? 抵抗食品、化學品、水和蒸汽的降解老化作用。

? 在與合成橡膠(彈性體、彈性纖維)和塑料接觸時,表現為中性。

? 生理惰性,無臭、無味、無毒、無害。



嚴格的執行準則

除了上述這些苛刻的性能要求,在美國和其他國家,偶然接觸食品的潤滑劑必須要遵守美國聯邦法規(CFR)第21條178.3570和其中引用的其他部分。178.3570章節提供了一個關于可用于制備食品級潤滑劑的物質和每種物質濃度限制的列表。從被公認安全(GRAS)用于食品的178.3570列表成分中引用的章節,相當于182和184章節。潤滑劑的配方可含有合成油、食用油諸如大豆油、棉花籽油和玉米油,或者白礦油。如果使用礦物油,它必須符合178.3620(a)、178.3620(b)或172.878,這些章節的條款列出了對白礦油純度的要求,包括顏色和紫外線(UV)吸收率的限制。



潤滑油的分類

根據美國國家衛生基金會(NSF)非食品化合物注冊程序和前美國農業部(USDA)非食品化合物認證程序,在它之前,有三類用于食品加工的潤滑油,即指定H1、H2和H3。H1潤滑劑用于加工中潤滑劑可能與食品接觸到的地方。H2潤滑劑用于與食品沒有接觸可能性的地方。無論H1還是H2潤滑劑,都不被用作直接接觸食品或者作為食品的成分。第三類,即H3潤滑劑,用于吊鉤、拉桿和類似設備的防銹;H3潤滑劑可由以下任何一直組成:符合21 CFR 172.878規則和公認安全(GRAS)的食用油、礦物油。



H1和H2潤滑劑的一個顯著特性就是它們都是非食品化合物,用于食品加工區和食品加工周圍區域,但不直接接觸食品或成為食品的成分。然而,因為H1潤滑油作為可以偶然與食品接觸的潤滑油,其配方要求比H2潤滑油要嚴苛的多。



白皮書

當NSF審核完成后,NSF注冊證書將會出版并在NSF官網上的白皮書上發布,其鏈接地址是http://info.nsf.org/USDA/psnclistings.asp。當NSF注冊號、分類代碼和NSF注冊標識出現在NSF注冊產品名錄中,注冊程序才算完成。白皮書為制造商、監管部門和最終用戶,瀏覽分布于幾十個國家、幾百個公司的幾千種H1潤滑油認證提供“一站式購物”服務。



制造案例

潤滑脂的制造程序因不同的增稠劑而變化,但無論如何,基礎油都被加入反應容器中,如前面所討論的,這些基礎油可以是合成油、食用油或者白礦油。取決于潤滑脂的應用,這些基礎油的粘度會不同。增稠劑的組分被加入,就皂基增稠劑而言,比如12-羥基硬脂酸鈣,12-羥基硬脂酸在大概180°F時就熔化了。在這一溫度點上,添加入氫氧化鈣并加熱至220°F,一旦反應完成后,原料被加熱到400°F至完全的熔體,然后冷卻以使皂基纖維重結晶。這種材料可能被泵送到精加工反應釜或留在反映容器中完成最終產品,然后額外的基礎油被加入以使材料冷卻至180°F,這一過程使得抗磨損、抗腐蝕和抗氧化添加劑成分混合。然后潤滑脂可能通過膠體型球磨機、均質器(拌勻器)或其他后整理設備。這個過程中所需要的安全程序包括佩戴安全防護眼鏡、手套和圍裙。



成品測試

質量控制程序的典型做法是,一個批次的產品完成加工后要求采取樣品,然后將樣品通過質量控制實驗室測量(其中許多特性參數)滴點、工作和未工作錐入度、以及顏色/清晰度的處理。一旦獲得質量標準許可,潤滑脂將可能被打包并用同樣的標準重新測試。信息可能因制造商而異,因此對于想獲得滿意的結果,測試每個樣品是非常重要的。



文章來源(英文原文)——


Food-grade Greases


?David Turner, Shell


Tags: food grade lubricants, bio-based lubricants

Food-grade greases are used in various food-processing equipment and other industrial equipment applications. These include plain and rolling element bearings, joints, linkages and slides, centralized lubrication systems and enclosed gearboxes. Food-grade greases must not only perform the same technical functions as any other lubricant, they have other demanding requirements including:

? Resisting degradation from food products, chemicals, water and steam.

? Exhibiting a neutral behavior when in contact with elastomers and plastics.

? Being physiologically inert, odorless, tasteless, nontoxic and harmless.

?Strict Guidelines


In addition to these demanding properties, incidental food contact lubricants in the United States and other countries must comply with the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 21, Section 178.3570 and other sections referenced therein. Section 178.3570 provides a list of substances that can be used to prepare food-grade lubricants and the limitations on the concentration of each substance. Sections referenced in 178.3570 list ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in food, which corresponds to Sections 182 and 184. Lubricant formulations may contain synthetic oils, edible oils such as soybean, cottonseed and corn oil, or white mineral oil. If mineral oil is used, it must comply with Section 178.3620(a), 178.3620(b) or 172.878. These sections list the purity requirements for white mineral oil, including the color and ultraviolet (UV) absorbance limits.



Lubricant Categories

According to the National Sanitation Foundations (NSF) Nonfood Compounds Registration Program and the previous United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Nonfood Compounds Authorization Program, which preceded it, there are three categories of lubricants used in food processing, designated H1, H2, and H3. H1 lubricants are intended for use in areas where the lubricant may come in contact with food during processing. H2 lubricants are for use in areas where there is no possibility of food contact. Neither H1 nor H2 lubricants are intended for direct food contact or to be a component of the food. The third category, H3 lubricants, are products used to prevent rust on hooks, trolleys and similar equipment. H3 lubricants may be composed of any of the following: edible oils, mineral oil complying with 21 CFR Section 172.878, and GRAS substances.


A notable property of H1 and H2 lubricants is they are both considered nonfood compounds, which are products intended for use in and around food processing areas, but are not intended for direct food contact or to become a component of the food. However, because H1 lubricants were created with the potential for food contact, the formulary requirements for H1 products are more stringent than those for H2.


The White Book

Upon successful completion of the NSF review, an NSF Registration Letter is issued and posted in the White Book on the NSF Web site at www.nsf.org/usda/psnclistings.asp. The NSF Registration process is complete when the registration number, category code, and NSF Registration Mark appear on the NSF registered product. The White Book is a "one-stop-shopping" site for manufacturers, regulators and end users to peruse the more than 4,000 NSF registered H1 lubricants from over 400 companies located in 31 countries.


Manufacturing Case

Manufacturing procedures vary by thickener type. Regardless, the oil is added to a reaction vessel. As previously discussed, these oils may be synthetic oils, edible oils or white mineral oils. The viscosity of the base oil varies depending on the application using the grease. The thickener components are added, and in the case of a soap thickener such as a calcium 12-hydroxystearate, the 12-hydroxystearic acid is melted at around 180°F. At this point, calcium hydroxide is added with heating to around 220°F. Once the reaction is complete, the mass is heated to around 400°F to a full melt and then cooled to recrystalize the soap fibers. This material may then be pumped to a finishing kettle or left in the reaction vessel to finish. Additional oil is then added to cool the mass below 180°F, which allows the additives incorporating antiwear, corrosion prevention and oxidation resistance components to be mixed in. The grease may be passed through a colloid type mill, homogenizer or other finishing equipment. Normal safety procedures required during this process include wearing safety glasses, gloves and an apron.


Testing the Finished Product

Quality control procedures typically require a sample to be taken after the batch is finished processing. The samples are then processed through a quality control laboratory to measure (among many parameters) the dropping point, unworked and worked penetration, and color/clarity. Once approved against quality standards, the grease may be packaged and retested against the same standards. Information can vary from one manufacturer to another; therefore testing each sample is important for satisfactory results.

Machinery Lubrication (11/2007)

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